The two most common types of VPN today include SSL VPN and IPSec VPN. Imagine this scenario – you’re thousands of miles away from your workplace and need to access your company’s intranet portal.
One solution is to make this portal accessible via the Internet, but that can expose the company to a plethora of security risks. After all, different business departments use multiple intranet applications, and publishing them directly on the Internet will open them up to everyone.
A second, and more appropriate, solution is to use a Virtual Private Network (also commonly referred to as VPN). In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what is SSL VPN, its pros and cons, as well as how it fares against IPSec VPNs.
What is SSL VPN?
An SSL VPN uses the Secure Sockets Layer protocol – or the Transport Layer Security protocol – in web browsers to provide users with the capability of secure, remote VPN access. End-to-end encryption is employed to protect all data transmissions between an Internet-connected device and the server.
Enterprises use SSL VPNs for two main reasons:
- To allow remote employees to gain access to internal corporate resources safely.
- To safeguard the web sessions of users connecting to the Internet from outside the corporate network.
Moreover, SSL VPNs are easy to implement and don’t require installing and maintaining specific client software – just a modern browser! These types of VPNs are also known for their reliable connections. They provide a higher level of client platform compatibility as well as configurations for firewalls and remote networks.
They facilitate access to protected network resources remotely by using an authenticated pathway which encrypts all network traffic from end-to-end. This makes it appear as if the user is on the internal network, regardless of their actual geographic location.
Enterprises can also rest assured that unauthorized parties won’t be able to eavesdrop on network communications and alter or capture sensitive data. So, if you need a secure and flexible remote access solution for contractors, employees, etc. SSL-based VPNs are your best bet.
How Does it Work?
As mentioned earlier, an SSL VPN relies on TLS, or the older SSL protocol, to ensure secure remote access from anywhere. It enables authenticated users to create safe connections to internal HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) services via client applications or standard browsers which provide direct access to restricted networks.
Types of SSL VPN
There are two main types that you need to be aware of:
SSL Tunnel VPN
SSL tunnel VPNs allow users to access multiple internal network services securely via standard browsers, as well as other non-web based applications and protocols. The VPN “tunnel” is a link established between the remote user and VPN server, through which they can connect to one or more remote websites at a time on the client’s behalf.
However, this type calls for a browser that handles active content and offers functionality that is otherwise inaccessible through SSL portal VPNs.
SSL Portal VPN
An SSL portal VPN, on the other hand, enables one SSL VPN connection to a remote website. Remote users to access the gateway through their browser after authentication. Once inside, a single web page serves as a “portal” to various internal network services.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Using SSL VPN
One of the biggest advantages of SSL-based VPNs is that they use TLS – the technology implemented in today’s browsers. This eliminates the need to install specialized client software and makes it much easier to deploy. Additionally, TLS-created encryption circuits provide greater outbound connection security as opposed to traditional VPN protocols.
Another advantage is that an SSL VPN requires considerably less technical support and administrative overhead than traditional VPN clients, courtesy of their ease of use and dependence on commonly used web clients. Any browser that supports SSL or TLS will do, no matter what operating system is running on the devices of users.
Furthermore, users don’t have to download any additional software or go through complicated steps to set up an SSL VPN. Unlike IPSec or L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol), establishing a secure network with an SSL VPN only requires a modern browser.
SSL VPNs can provide administrators with granular access control as they create tunnels to specified applications instead of an entire corporate network. This means that it’s possible to restrict users on an SSL VPN connection to the applications they’ve been authorized to access, and not the entire network.
SSL-based VPNs bring a lot to the table, but it doesn’t come without certain risks. Considering that users can gain access to the servers remotely, even one user with a device running outdated antivirus software might spread malware to the enterprise’s network.
The split tunneling feature of SSL VPNs can be misused by cybercriminals, which gives users the ability to route sensitive traffic through the VPN tunnel and send the rest of it over unprotected. That’s because attackers can leverage the unsecured channel of a remote user to execute an assault.
That’s not all, though. If a user has established an SSL VPN connection to an enterprise’s network, leaving the session open can prove disastrous. After all, anyone else with access to that system will be able to wreak havoc on the internal network.
Similarly, using a publicly accessible computer to create an SSL VPN connection isn’t a great idea. Chances are the system that doesn’t fulfill enterprise security standards and policies, leaving remote users susceptible to keylogger attacks. In this case, the bad guys could intercept confidential information such as user credentials without much effort.
SSL VPN vs. IPSec
There are a number of advantages of using SSL over the IPSec VPN. First of all, setting up a remote access VPN connection with IPSec requires the installation of client software on systems. Enterprises may need to purchase and configure additional software, which increases administrative overhead. SSL VPNs, though, are configurable using existing browsers and require minimal modifications.
Ease of use is another advantage SSL VPNs have over IPSec VPNs. Different IPSec VPN providers could have different configuration and implementation requirements. SSL VPNs, though, can be implemented with virtually any modern browser.
When it comes to IPSec VPNs, a remote user has complete access to the entire internal network. This can expose some resources to attacks! In contrast, SSL VPNs allow for personalized, granular access control. How you ask? By supporting the creation of tunnels to specified applications instead of the entire network. In this way, it’s easy for enterprises to provide different users with different access rights.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following are answers to some of the most commonly asked questions about VPN SSL:
What Port Does SSL VPN Use?
SSL VPNs use TCP port 443, which is open on most firewalls and works in just about any environment. It also proves useful for remote users when they’re sitting behind another establishment’s firewall.
Which is Better IPSec VPN or SSL?
It’s not a question of which is better, but rather what is best suited for your needs. IPSec VPN is ideal for site-to-site VPNs, whereas SSL VPN are superior when it comes to remote access.
What OSI Layer is SSL VPN?
An SSL VPN operates at the transport layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, so network traffic can easily be divided into tunneled circuits to access protected applications or resources and in tunneled circuits to access public applications or resources.
What is the difference between VPN and SSL VPN?
A VPN uses tunneling protocols like OpenVPN and IPSec to establish an encrypted connection between your device and the Internet. SSL VPNs rely on SSL or TLS protocol to prevent third-parties from intercepting network traffic and misusing sensitive data.
Wrapping Things Up
VPNs are becoming a more significant part of educational and corporate environments. Therefore, ease of use is going to be paramount if the technology is to gain widespread acceptance. This is where SSL-based VPNs are quite useful. They can be used by individuals with little to no literacy when it comes to computers.
Not only this, an SSL VPN is easily accessible from any modern device or computer. You can also set it up to provide better security than IPSec. Enterprises with a global presence have access to an extensive network of employees. By embracing SSL VPNs they can continue to expand securely. That too, without the technical knowledge and overhead required by other outdated VPN technologies.