Group of internet-connected devices, which are lead by one or more bots, are known as botnets. These botnets are used to perform DDoS attacks to steal data, and so a hacker can get access to your device.
What is a Botnet?
In 1999, the cybersecurity landscape was rapidly changing. With the creation of the internet came many new threats, one of which was something known as a botnet. The first botnet was formed from a worm called PrettyPark. In what would eventually become commonplace, PrettyPark’s botnet communicated with a Command-and-Control server via Internet Relay Chat. While PrettyPark was not very powerful, the foundation is laid for botnets to come would not go unnoticed.
There are many forms of botnets, but arguably the most popular among the black-hat hacking community is the DDoS botnet. DDoS stands for Distributed-Denial-of-Service, and it is a type of attack that seeks to knock a network out of commission. A DDoS attack can be used on its own or as a part of a multi-pronged attack against a target. It is an upgraded version of a Denial-of-Service, or DoS, attack. The way it is superior to a DoS attack is that, whereas the former simply attacks with one machine, a DDoS attack utilizes multiple machines. With these numerous machines, which can number from the thousands to millions, the threat actor can overload a target at a much quicker rate. The zombie machines send network traffic to a target, and eventually, the target is overloaded and rendered inoperable.
This is where we circle back to the concept of a botnet. Combining the words “robot” and “network,” you get the term botnet. A botnet is a collection of infected machines, aka “zombies,” that all function in unison on the orders of the threat actor. Imagine that a cybercriminal wishes to bring down a server. To build a botnet, they infect various devices with malware via a plethora of methods (phishing emails, vulnerability exploitation, etc.). Once they have a strong army of zombie machines, they can then flood the server with packets until legitimate traffic is unable to reach it.
What are the components of a DDoS botnet?
DDoS botnets can be used by many types of threat actors. These can be regular criminals looking to cause damage to a business, state-sponsored actors attempting to attack a foreign enemy, and script kiddies just trying to cause mayhem. These days, it is easy to obtain control of a botnet by simply renting one. Hackers on the Dark Web run botnets as a service, and as long as a client has the crytpo-currency to pay for it, they can obtain access to a powerful tool.
Originally, DDoS botnets were formed from personal computers infected with malware. Now, however, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) has opened up options beyond simple PCs. Anything that connects to the IoT can be a part of a botnet now. Some of the most popular botnets today (more on that later) consist of a variety of so-called “smart” devices. A refrigerator, a television, a tablet, and your smartphone can all be zombies in a botnet. Vulnerabilities in the code, weak passwords, and many other security risks all allow this to be possible. Unfortunately, as the world becomes more technologically advanced, the opportunity for threats to existing multiplies as well.
Examples of DDoS Botnets
DDoS botnets are at an all-time high in terms of activity. Just in the last decade, the world saw a number of high-profile attacks that crippled multinational corporations, and even nation-states. To understand just how destructive they can be, here are examples of some of the most infamous to hit the global landscape:
- Mirai: The Mirai botnet, which originates in the Mirai malware, surfaced around 2016. It was responsible for some of the largest DDoS ever seen by cybersecurity researchers at the time. Its primary targets for building the botnet were devices like IP cameras and personal computers. It was used to attack social media websites like Reddit and Twitter, the French web host OVH, large universities like Rutgers, and the entire country of Liberia (namely their internet infrastructure).
- vDOS: This DDoS botnet service gained notoriety due to its usage by the cybergang Lizard Squad. vDOS was created by Israeli hackers that charged for its usage, and Lizard Squad made heavy use of its services. The group was hell-bent on causing sheer chaos “for the lulz,” and perhaps to make a bit of cash along the way. Using vDOS, they were able to disrupt numerous gaming services like Playstation Network and XBOX Live, and additionally, were able to take down the entire infrastructure of North Korea’s internet. Lizard Squad employed tactics similar to ransomware users. Before or during a DDoS attack, the group would demand money to prevent further damage. DDoS attacks cause businesses, for instance, to lose money every second they cannot function, and as such, Lizard Squad hoped to capitalize on that.
Protecting Against Joining a Botnet
So how does a person prevent themselves from becoming unwitting accomplices in forming a botnet? The answers are not that complicated as they tie-in to good general security practices.
First is to create a strong alphanumeric password. Many hackers use rainbow tables and programs like Cain and Abel to brute-force their way into a device. With simple, commonly used passwords, it won’t take very long for an attacker to gain access via brute-forcing the hashes and trying ordinary phrases.
Second, ensure that your devices are always up-to-date in terms of patches and updates. Vulnerabilities are a common way that hackers can penetrate a device, as it leaves a hole to slip remotely executed code or other malicious tactics through.
Third, do not trust third-party code unless you have intensively vetted it. Many individuals download applications via untrusted websites without realizing that they can just be giving access away. Many malicious applications also hide in official app stores; however, so be wary no matter where you download. Once installed, A malicious app can quickly unleash malware that connects to the C2 server (with you none the wiser).
The final method you need to implement is strong network security practices. This includes properly configured firewalls, malware scanners, and a VPN. The firewalls will try to prevent the zombie devices from communicating with the C2 server. The malware scanners will seek and destroy any malicious software on your devices. Finally, a Virtual Private Network such as PureVPN will hide your real IP address from an attacker. With AES 256-bit encryption, and servers around the world, hackers will have a hard time locating your network and the devices you run on it.
Learn more about DDoS
- What is a DDoS Attack?
- How to Prevent DDoS Attack on Xbox
- Blackhole Routing
- HTTP Flood Attack
- Cross site Forgery Attack
- Malicious Payload
- HTTP Vulnerability
- What is Password Spraying
- DNS Flood Attack
- Low and Slow Attack
- What Happens During a DDoS Attack
- SSDP DDoS Attack
- Smurf DDoS Attack
- DDoS Botnets
- UDP Flood Attack
- Slowloris Attack
- NTP Amplification Attack
- DDoS Mitigation
- Ping Flood Attack
- DDoS Booter
- DNS Amplification Attack
- Brute Force Attack
- Golden Ticket Attack
- Credential Stuffing Attack
- How to Prevent DDoS Attack on Router
- Memcached attack
- Application Layer DDoS Attack
- DDoS Attack Prevention
- BGP Hijacking
- IP Fragmentation Attack